Thursday, September 03, 2009

Cilacap ( Tjilatjap ) & Segara Anakan

Cilacap and Segara Anakan

Location:'7'35'-7°46'S, l08°45'-109°01'E; on the south coast of West Java, close to the frontier with Central Java.
Area:24,000 ha.
Altitude:Sea level.
Biogeographical Province:4.22.12.
Wetland type:02, 03, 05, 06, 07, 08 & 11.

Description of site:
A large, shallow sea bay with two connections to the open sea, one at the southern end of a sandy barrier island and the other to the west of the rocky island of Nusa Kambangan. Fresh water and silt enter the bay via the Citanduy, Cibeureum and Kawunganten Rivers and several smaller streams. The bay contains extensive mangrove swamps dissected by a network of tidal creeks, and there are marshes and mudflats around Segara Anakan. The coastal plain of Cilacap consists of low-lying swampy areas and rice paddies, and higher old dunes and beach ridges, usually occupied by human settlements. There are several oxbow lakes formed as abandoned meanders of the Serayu River. The site contains at least 18,500 ha of mangrove swamp and 200 ha of tidal marsh. Some 8,200 ha of the surrounding swamps have already been converted into rice paddies.

Climatic conditions:
Humid tropical maritime climate with a maximum rainfall of 3,720 mm per year. The average temperature is 27°C.
Principal vegetation:Mangrove swamps with a very diverse flora. Tree species include Rhizophora mucronata, R. conjugata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, B. parviflora, Ceriops candoleana, C. roxburghiana, Xylocarpus granatum, X. molluccensis, Avicennia off icinalis, A. marina, Sonneralia alba, S. ovata, S. acida, Aegiceras corniculatum, A. floridum. Lumnitzera racemosa, L. littorea, Scyphiphora hydrophyllaceae, Cynometra ramiflora, Pit hecellobium umbellatum, Heritiera littoralis, Cerbera manghas and Nypa fruticans. Other plants associated with the mangroves include Acrostichum aureum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris heterophylla.

Land tenure:
State owned (Indonesian Government).

Conservation measures taken:
The number of trawlers permitted to fish in the Cilacap area is limited to 90. This regulation came into effect in July 1978. Trawlers are not allowed to fish in the traditional fishing grounds which extend three nautical miles offshore.
Conservation measures proposed:Various scientists and conservationists have proposed that the site be given special protection. The Citanduy River Basin Management Project made several proposals to stabilize the lagoon by diverting the Citanduy River, dredging and churning up sediment to facilitate transportation.

Land use:
Fishing, cultivation of rice and cutting of mangrove poles; fishing, forestry, agriculture and recreation in adjacent areas.
Disturbances and threats:The rate of sedimentation has increased to such an extent that the surface area of the lagoon will decrease from the current 1,400 ha to about 550 ha by the year 2000 (Guarin & White, 1988). There are not enough patrols to check the implementation of the fishing regulations, and over-fishing has become a problem. Illegal cutting of the mangrove forest has led to severe degradation of the forest, especially in the Karang Anyar area. Reclamation and polderization of the swamps for agricultural purposes continue. At present, there is no serious chemical pollution in the lagoon, although some domestic wastes and increasing pesticide residues may be problems.

Economic and social values:
Cilacap is a very important region for its marine fishery resources, and most of the 8,000 people dependent on Segara Anakan are fishermen. The fishery resources have been exploited by traditional methods for a very long time. Modern technology has been used since 1971, mainly for shrimp fishing (trawling). The number of trawling units has been limited to 90 since 1976, to curb over-fishing. In 1977, the production of demersal fish was 18,300 metric tonnes, but by 1979, production was down to 13,500 metric tonnes. The present catch of offshore fisheries is estimated at only 9,050 metric tonnes (7,150 tonnes of finfish and the rest, penaeid shrimps). The lagoon itself produces about 400 metric tonnes of finfish, shrimps and crabs per year. The mangrove forest is of great value to the local people. It provides firewood, timber for construction purposes, and the materials for making fish traps and racks for drying fish and shrimps.

The bay supports a very rich fish fauna. Species of commercial importance include Luijanus spp, Formio niger, Pampus spp, Anus spp, Trichiurus spp, Priacanthus spp, Chorinemus sp, Epinephalus spp, Pomadacys spp, Nemipterus spp, Saurida spp, Johnius sp, Eutherapon sp, Upeneus spp, Gerres kapas, Leognathus spp, Anguilla spp, Psettodes sp, Cygnoglossus sp, Himantura spp and Carchaninus spp. Some of the many species of no commercial importance include Periophthalmus koereuteri, Mugil sp. Peniophihalmodon scholosseri and Acentrogobius virdipunctatus.Waterfowl known to occur at the site include Anhinga melanogaster. Bubulcus ibis, Egretta alba, Ardea purpurea, A. cinerea, Mycteria cinerea, Ciconia episcopus. Dendrocygna arcuata, Amaurornis phoenicurus and Porphynio porphyrio. Small cetaceans occur in the bay, and Cervus sp, Muntiacus muntjak, Macaca sp and Hystrix brachyura occur in the forests. Reptiles include the Green Sea Turtle Chelonia mydas and the monitor lizard Varanus salvalor.The rich invertebrate fauna includes the economically important crab Scylla serrata, other crabs such as Macrophihalmus bosci, Uca sp, Neopisesarma taeniolata, Grapsus sp and Pagurus sp, and a wide variety of molluscs (bivalves, Luciniidae, Anomia corugata, Pedalion isogunum and eighteen species of Gastropods).

Special floral values:
Site contains a particularly large and diverse stand of The mangrove forest.

Research and facilities:
The area has been the subject of a considerable amount of research by Indonesian scientists, and is currently being investigated under the ASEAN-US Coastal Resources Management Project.

Bird et al. (1982); Direktorat P.P.A. (1980g. l986a & 1986b); FAO (l979a); Guarin & White (1987); Sukardjo (1984).
Criteria for Inclusion:1b, 1e, 2a, 2c, 3b.

Marcel J. Silvius and Eva T. Berczy.


  1. Hi Toto,hope u'r doing great.. I'm Fiza from Malaysia..

    Recently I found my late grandfather's letter which dated on 1940s, written on Ducth and mention the hometown as
    Desa Germelar, Songian, Tjilatjap..

    Is that place still exist?

    Love to hear from you me at mulanor[at]yahoo[dot]com.

  2. Hello Fiza,
    Of course that village is still exist.
    So you should have another family member here.